The scientific definition of the concept of “classification of goods” is the distribution of goods transported by sections, groups and positions. This definition does not give any idea of what the classification of goods actually and dispatch training classes are, and most importantly, how it is built.
The classification of goods by carriers is carried out according to various criteria. Cargoes may differ in their belonging to a particular sector of the economy. They also distinguish between goods by purpose – raw materials, finished products, fuel, household chemicals, household appliances, perishable and dangerous goods, etc., by types of rolling stock and transport characteristics, such as volume, overall dimensions, bulkiness, etc. . Often the same cargo can be classified differently depending on the selected feature.
However, there are goods that are permanently assigned to the same class.
The classification of such goods is as follows:
Dangerous goods are items or substances whose transportation is fraught with harm to human health, the environment, and damage to property. There is a special list of dangerous goods – IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. Dangerous goods occupy a special place in the classification of goods, as their transportation is associated with risks and must be carried out in compliance with the strictest security measures. In addition, there are a number of rules and requirements not only directly to the transportation of such goods, but also to the rolling stock, equipment of trucks carrying such goods, and the availability of a specially trained forwarder.
These include goods that require special storage conditions (humidity level, temperature conditions) and delivery times, otherwise they will become unusable or lose their valuable qualities during transportation. The classification of such cargoes mainly includes food products.
Oversized and super-heavy cargo.
Such cargoes have non-standard dimensions, weight, volume, etc. Their transportation is associated with great difficulties, so often such cargo cannot be transported by standard methods. For such cargoes, it is sometimes necessary to create special vehicles and invent special methods, develop special routes for their transportation. An example of oversized and extra-heavy cargo is a residential building, a drilling rig, heavy generators, etc.
Cattle, all kinds of poultry and other farm animals fall under the classification of this type of cargo. In addition, very often, when traveling, people take their pets with them – dogs, cats, etc., which also represent, for transport companies, live cargo.
The classification of goods transported by transport companies according to certain signs and indicators is necessary for cargo carriers to properly organize the process of cargo transportation, in order to streamline and optimize both the transportation process itself and the preparatory work necessary in each case.