Cargoes for special purposes are cargoes that require special conditions and additional permits. This is taught in the dispatcher training.
If the conditions of their delivery are not met, the cargo itself may become unusable, there will be a threat to other traffic participants, as a result of emergency situations may cause harm to human health and the environment.
The ability to cause damage to nature, as well as life and health of people makes the carriage of these goods is the most responsible process. They include explosive and flammable materials, combustibles, radioactive and poisonous substances, alkalis, acids and other chemicals. For their transportation, special vehicles are used. Drivers carrying out this type of activity must have special permits. The route is designed to avoid large settlements, nature reserves and national parks.
Over-sized and heavy cargoes.
They are considered special because they may hinder the traffic on highways, create obstacles, often need vehicles equipped with special devices, may cause accidents on the roads, and cause damage to the pavement. In some cases, such cargo requires special escort by a traffic police vehicle.
This type of cargo is not dangerous to other road users, but requires compliance with a certain temperature and humidity, such goods must be transported without additional delays.
A special category that requires fast delivery because the slightest delay can lead to the death of living beings or make them suffer from hunger, thirst, cold or heat. They must be protected from adverse conditions arising during transportation and, in the case of a long route, provided with food and water. Naturally, animals are only transported in vehicles designed for that purpose and with strict observance of speed limits to avoid injury.
Classification of goods for special purposes also includes items whose loss or damage would cause irreparable damage, since they have cultural value. Such are antiques, works of art, historical relics, religious objects, etc. During their transportation the most reliable container is used, which allows to avoid the slightest damage, and transportation is carried out under the protection.
Special cargo can be transported only by organizations that have licenses, have vehicles designed for it, and have drivers of the required qualifications. In addition, for each type of special cargo it is necessary to prepare appropriate documentation, develop a route and obtain approval for its transportation.